of Indigenous Arts and Culture
|A MONUMENT TO POWHATAN II
The proposal shows the paramount chief with the Powhatan Mantle over his shoulders. The figure wears the
Powhatan cape or mantle. The cape has a copy at the Jamestown Festival Park in Virginia. It's design symbolized a
man between his two totems (a deer and mountain lion) with 34 sacred circles representing indigenous Virginia,
Maryland and Washington, DC member nations historically documented as the "Powhatan Confederacy". Powhatan II's
domain was not governed by a dictatorship, nor was it like any "Kingdom" experienced by the English. Nations affilliated
with his "Confederacy" had a certain amount of autonomy. They practiced the deliberative caucus, a concept that the
Europeans admire about their ancient Greek government.
About the Artists
Rose Powhatan (Pamunkey/Tauxenent) and her husband of 54 years, Michael Auld are Washington, DC
artists/educators/historians. Michael is a member of the United Confederation of Taíno People (UCTP). His wife
Rose's family is deeply rooted in Virginia, DC and Marylamd. She is descended from the Pamunkey nation, the first
federally recognized Indian tribe of the state, as well as the Tauxenent Indian Nation (historic neighbors of George
Washington, in Fairfax County, Virginia and Washington, DC.). Her maternal ancestor, Opechancanough, was the
brother of Powhatan II. Rose is also an Algonquian wisdom keeper and storyteller. She has performed Tauxenent
Land Acknowledgements at both the Kennedy Center and for the August 2020 Sankofa Foundation's YouTube
video Celebrating the 55th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act.
We are the founders of the Powhatan Museum educational website. As retired educators and practicing artists, in
2007 we found it necessary to create a far reaching tool to educate the public on Native American issues that were
missing from the country's educational systems. The Powhatan Museum promotes knowledge about Virginia and DC
Indian's contributions to the founding of the United States of America, so that it will never be forgotten. We are Still
In 1986, we created the "Totems to Powhatan", six sculptures based on traditional Virginia Indian totem poles.
The circle of totems, ranging from 4 to 9 feet, were fire engraved on the front with the history of Virginia, from the
“Algonquian Origin Myth" to the "Old Dominion," that we continue to honor to this day. Rose was the first Virginia
Indian artist of her generation to honor her ancestors by reviving the totem pole cultural tradition revered by her
Figure 2 (Left & Center): Installation artists, Rose Powhatan & Michael Auld with six of their contemporary
"Totems to Powhatan" constructed for the 1986 Art for the Metro installation, Vienna Metro Station, Fairfax County,
Virginia. The Vienna site is near to homes where Rose spent her summers with local Pamunkey/Tauxenent relatives.
(Right): One of six commissioned traditional Powhatan Totems,Village center, Jamestown Festival Park, VA
**Caucus. The first written record
of a caucus was by English
chroniclers of the time.
"Powhatan's favorite place to
caucus with surrounding
[Amerindian] nations, was near
the Tiber Creek, located on
today's Capitol Hill in Washington,
DC. Powhatan never left his
The lands of the Dogue or
Tauxenent territory spread over
rom Fairfax County across
Roosevelt Island to the Potomac
River to the NW portion of District
of Columbia. "Dogue = 34th
member of the Powhatan
At the time of the English contact
in 1607, Powhatan's domain was
an expanding territory stopped
dead in its tracks by disease,
Anglo-Powhatan wars, and
English instigated destabilization.
The kidnapping of Pocahontas
played a pivotal role in this
disruption of government.
Powhatan II whose private
name, in the Algonquian
Wahunsenachaw, and his
responsible for ALLOWING the
English in Attan Akamik ("Our
Fertile Country") in 1607. As
the Virginia Company of
Captain John Smith's hopefully
lucrative economic enterprise,
cascaded into an eventual
complete takeover of the
*"Virginia Territory" that
included many of today's
Eastern Seaboard states. The
effectively helped to weaken
the Powhatan Paramonuntcy.
Although the English
intentions to establish a
foothold on the North American
continent in competition with
the Spanish was not known by
the Powhatans, the Powhatan
decision was probably by
*The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and established in 1607, was the first enduring English colony
in North America
**Caucus; First recorded by Captain John Smith in 1607. Today, it continues to be a political meeting to
make decisions. From the Native American Caucus to the Black and Hispanic Caucus. For example
today Michael E. Capuano, Massachusetts is a member of approximately 33 caucuses.
THE SCULPTURAL MONUMENT
|"What will it avalle you to take that by force you may quickly have by love, or to destroy
them that provide you food?"
-Wahunsennachaw, Powhatan II to Captain John Smith (1608)
(Left) MAQUETTE: Originally based on
work done by Georgia Mills Jessup
(Pamunkey) and her son-in-law Michael
The proposed sculpture to the left is
by the team of
It is the idealized figure of
60-year-old Powhatan II in 1607, son
ot the first Powhatan ("Dreamer") who
began with an eight-tribal
confederation in Tidewater, Virginia.
Powhatan II, who expanded his
inherited territory to 32-34 Algonquian
nations before 1607, wears his mantle
(see below) now in England's
Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. He
holds a turtle embellished talking
stick (used to keep discussions civil
at caucuses on Capitol Hill meetings
with surrounding nations). The
proposed statue is 10 feet tall
(bronze). The marble base is 4 feet tall.
Figure 1: (Left) Rose
Powhatan at the Ashmolean
Museum, Oxford, England in
(Bottom) Powhatan’s Mantle.
Her research trip was made
possible by a grant from the
(Right) Rose Powhatan,
August 8, 2020 giving a
blessing in her "Attan Akamik"
a,k.a. Washington DC
homeland yard for
an introduction video for the
55th Anniversary Celebration
of the Voting Rights Act. The
YouTube event was sponsored
by the Sankofa Foundation..
Figure 3: (Left); Rose Powhatan
with her “Keziah Powhatan” totem to
her 18th century ancestor whose
band twice burned down the Fairfax
County Courthouse that was on her
tribal land, given to Lord Fairfax by
his cousin, the King of England.
4: (Right), Rose Powhatan
/Tauxenent) Gravesend, London,
England, 1995 on a Fulbright
Teacher Exchange, in front of her
relative, Pocahontas' statue near
Pocahontas' burial site under the
nearby St. Georges Church.
Pocahontas is believed to be buried
under the floor of the church's alter.
A duplicate of this statue is at
5: (Above) Riverbend Park, 2015 Native American Festival with Rose Powhatan, descendant (paternal) of the
indigenous Tauxenent or Dogue people of Fairfax County in Northern Virginia. Next to her are two of her six
fire engraved "Powhatan Totems". The shorter Algonquian origin-story totem is titled “Michabo the Great Hare
Story” that photographically tells where men and women came from. The taller traditional red-faced totem tells
the “Pocahontas Story”.
Figure 5: (Above) Rose Powhatan (Pamunkey/Tauxenenr) in her Washington, DC ancestral territory, telling
her Algonquian Michabo the Great Hare's Origin Story, "where men and women came from," a Great Flood
legend. Kennedy Center's REACH building's Land Acknowledgement ceremony. (2019).
Figure 6: (Above) Michael Auld's life-sized sculptural installation of Anacaona ("Golden Flower")
1504 martyred Taino's Queen of Xaragua, Hispaniola, seated on her dujo (royal stool) in a
cohoba trance. (Mixed Media—2003
POWHATAN II & POCAHONTAS IN PAINTINGS
Above: The English Crowning of Powhatan II: (1608)
"The Coronation of Powhatan,” by the American artist John Cadsby Chapman, oil on canvas. Courtesy of
the Greenville Museum of Art, Greenville, South Carolina.
In 1608, Captain Newport realized that Powhatan's friendship was crucial to the survival of the small
Jamestown colony. In the summer of that year, he tried to "crown" the paramount Chief [Already the leader
of a vast "Empire" or "Confederacy"], with a ceremonial crown, to make him an English "vassal".--Wikipedia
Above: Powhatan II doll designs, (Porcelain, feathers, buckskin, beads, copper) by Michael Auld.
Below: Interpretive paintings of Powhatan and Pocahontas by various other artists.